آراء و أقلام الخميس 16 فبراير 2017 01:44 مساءً

موقــــــــع حــــاســـــي سيتـــــــــي/

 بقلم بــلال دالـــــــــي                                                                         ،

مرت الذرة بعدة مراحل تاريخية بدءاً من الافتراضات الفلسفية اليونانية منذ القرن الخامس قبل الميلاد مع ديمقريطس، الذي فكر أن كل مادة مكونة من جزيئات صغيرة جدا، فإذا قمنا بتقسيم المادة إلى أجزاء صغيرة جدا لا نستطيع تقسيمها فقد نحصل على ما سماه الذرة (بالإغريقية : Atomos )، كان لديمقريطس رأي أن الذرة مكونة من فراغ، ولكن لم يستطع أن يجد أي إثبات علمي. أما أرسطو ( القرن الرابع قبل الميلاد ) فجاء بنظرية المكونات الاربع، إذ قال أن المادة مكونة من الماء والتربة والهواء والنار. هذه -النظرية- أقل فلسفية واكثر علمية من سابقتها، إذ أنه أعطى براهين تبدو منطقية، فاحتراق جسم يدل على وجود النار فيه، أضف إلى ذلك أن هذه المكونات تتحول فيما بينها، فالدخان هو تحول النار إلى هواء، والمطر هو تحول الهواء إلى ماء. استمرت نظرية أرسطو إلى حدود القرن التاسع عشر، حيث اكتشف الكيميائيون عن طريق التجارب أن المواد تتفاعل فيما بينها بنسب محددة. من هنا جاءت نظرية جون دالتون، فعلى حد إيمانه، غرام واحد من الهيدروجين يتفاعل مع كتلة محددة من الأكسجين ( 8 غرامات) ليشكلوا تسع غرامات من الماء. وهذه النسب هي نفسها دائما مهما تكن الكتلة، يعني غرامين من الهيدروجين ستتفاعل بالضرورة مع ستة عشر غرام من الأكسيجين لتشكل ثمانية عشر غرام من الماء. من وجهة نظر دالتون هذا ليس ممكنا إلا إذا كانت المادة مكونة من حبات صغيرة جدا -ذرات- لا تقبل التجزئة. كما استشف أيضا، أن ذرات مادة ما متشابهة في الكتلة، وأن ذرات العناصر المختلفة لها كتل مختلفة، كما أن التفاعلات الكيميائية ما هي إلا اتحاد لذرات مختلفة لتكون عناصر جديدة. بيد أن هذه النظرية استلزمت أزيد من قرن ليتم تقبلها في أوساط العلماء أنفسهم.

بعد ذلك، استطاع العالم البريطاني جوزيف جون طومسون، من خلال تجربته سنة 1897 أن يثبت وجود الإلكترونات السالبة، ويبين أن الذرة ليست الجسيم الأصغر في الكون. في سنة 1904 أعطى طومسون نموذجا يتم تخيل الذرة كإلكترونات محاطة بحساء من الشحنات الموجبة. من هنا، الذرة محايدة كهربائياً. ليأتي الدور على ارنست رذرفورد، بتجربته الشهيرة، صفيحة الذهب، إذ قذف بجزيئات ألفا α وبيتا β وأشعة ڭاما γ على الصفيحة، فلاحظ أن هناك إشعاعات اخترقت الصفيحة دون أن تنحرف، وأخرى انحرفت، إضافة إلى إشعاعات لم تخترق أبدا الصفيحة. لم يرى رذرفورد في نموذج طومسون إجابات لتجربته، يبدو أن نموذجا آخر على الأبواب. فالإشعاعات المنحرفة والتي لم تعبر اصطدمت بجسيمات ثقيلة، أما التي عبرت فقد استغلت الفراغ الموجود في ذرات الذهب. ليستخلص رذرفورد، أن الجزيئات ألفا في حد ذاتها تتكون من جزيئات ثقيلة ترتد على جزيئات أخرى ثقيلة من صفيحة الذهب، هذه الجزيئات الثقيلة الموجبة، سماها ارنست بالنواة تتمركز فيها اغلب كتلة الذرة، وأن شحنتها الموجبة جاءت من جزيئات سماها بروتونات. ليعلن رذرفورد سنة 1911 عن نموذج للذرة، بحيث أن الإلكترونات تدور حول النواة كما تدور الكواكب حول الشمس، حيث أن التجاذب بين الشحنات الموجبة والسالبة بين الإلكترونات والنواة يمثل قوى التجاذب الكوني، ليحصل نموذج رذرفورد

على اسم ” النموذج الكوني للذرة”. رذرفورد كان يعلم أن النواة بحد ذاتها مكونة من نيكليوتيدات، موجبة “بروتونات” ومحايدة “نترونات”. سنة 1932، الفيزيائي البريطاني جيمس شادويك استطاع أن يبين وجود النترونات، هذه النترونات هي التي تمنع انفجار النواة وتبقيها مستقرة.

ينص النموذج الكوني للذرة، أو نموذج ارنست رذرفورد، على أن الذرة تتكون من الكترونات سالبة الشحنة تدور حول نواة كثيفة وصغيرة وموجبة الشحنة، وهذه الإلكترونات يجب أن تتعرض للإشعاع وتفقد طاقتها لتسقط على النواة، لكن هذا لا يحدث لأن الذرات مستقرة. من هنا انطلق الفيزيائي الدانماركي نلز بور ليحدث ثورة في عالم الفيزياء، إذ على حد قوله، فالإلكترونات يمكنها أن تتواجد في مدارات محددة بدقة لا متناهية وفقا لطاقتها، إذا اكتسبت طاقة ( Absorption)، هذه الكمية من الطاقة تسمى فوطونات من خلال العلاقة، E=hf، انتقلت لمدار أعلى، وإذا فقدت طاقة (Emission) انتقلت لمدار أدنى، كما أن المدار الذي يكافئ أقل كمية طاقة يسمى بالمستوى الأساسي (Niveau fondamental)، وهو الأقرب للنوات ويحمل الرقم n=1 . لكن، وكما جرت العادة، كان لنموذج بور بعض القصور، فهو صالح للذرات ذات الإلكترون والنترون الوحيد (الهيدروجين)، ما الحل بالنسبة للذرات الأثقل؟ أضف إلى ذلك نظرية لويس دي برغلي المستوحاة من عمل بلانك وأينشتاين بأن طبيعة الموجة ضوئية، فإن للإلكترون بنية جسيمية وموجية، وحسب مبدأ هيزنبرغ للشك (1923) فيستحيل أن نعلم كمية الحركة لإلكترون معين، بعبارة أخرى موقعه وسرعته في نفس الوقت. هذا ما ألهم العظيم إروين شرودنغر سنة 1925 ليختبر نظرية دي برغلي رياضيا، ويخرج بتصور جديد مفاده أن حركة الإلكترون الموجية حول النواة تكون في منطقة محددة تشبه إلى حد بعيد الغيمة الإلكترونية سماها بالفلك. وأعطى معادلة سميت باسمه، نستطيع من خلال حلها، معرفة موقع الإلكترون بدلالة الفلك ومستويي الطاقة الفرعي والرئيسي. هذا، آخر نموذج توصل إليه العلم. سنتطرق في مواضيع قادمة إلى شرح هذا النموذج الكمي والشرح بالتفصيل مستويات الطاقة…، أيضا سنتحدث عن كارثة الأشعة فوق البنفسجيةCatastrophe d’Ultra-Violet، وميكانيكا الكم ومواضيع أخرى. #سلسلة_مقالات_اللورد_حول_الفيزياء





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